Solutions and Extras of

Arc of

Essentials

©


What has

Arc of

Essentials

©

to offer that is lacking in the Social sciences ?



[dd. 2018|02|08 - 00h:32m (27s:856ms) ]

Many if not most of the key problems and goals we are faced with in our time have to do with human actions and decisions. An effective approach to these requires sharp problem analysis and creative development of solutions. In this however, we are often dependent on information and judgments about human behavior and experience. In addition, we have to take into account numerous aspects of human functioning, causal relations, information and logic, language and communication - all in complex interactions. Because of this, 'social judgment' is always very complex and subject to numerous limitations and pitfalls (like projection, presumption, prejudice, etc.).

Areas of science where research is done and theories are formed on the social judgments are of course the social sciences, in particular in psychology but also sociology, anthropology, criminology, politicology, economics, etc.. Unfortunately, relatively little information in these areas is being developed about how precisely people may perform their information processing and selection in a way that is sufficiently accurate and reliable. Indeed, there is much basic knowledge lacking in these fields of knowledge needed for a really solid and result-oriented way of forming social judgments. Due to these missing links, many personal and social problems remain unsolved and much damage and suffering persist.
In many of these crucial links of reliable judgments have been clearly and systematically incorporated.

The table below shows some important difficulties and pitfalls for our judgments that we are faced with on different areas of reality (domains). In addition, the various solutions and extras are mentioned that are available in .



Domain

 

Psychology


Information in behavior and experience


Model of functioning/system
What determines well-being, responding, decision-making of people?


Method of change


Problems/ pitfalls


The term 'goal-directed' is increasingly used - but there is not a real solid methodolgy with coherent ideas and tools on how best work towards results

Solutions +Extras :


In

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Method
Clear system for goal-directed approach
Charactarized by three advantages: Goal-directed approach, Efficiency, Effectivity.

Goal_Directed Psychology (GDP) is a method to work towards desired results in a systematic and constructive way. Its application lies mainly in the area of human functioning and quality of experience. This applies especially to situations that are complex, dynamic of chaotic. For this purpose use is made of an optimal combination of logic and psychology.

  • Pitfall

    : Problem-orientation: Attention continues to hang in problems, limitations, weaknesses, ..
    Goals and options are often hard to test: eg they are absent, vague ('more' this or that..), ideology-based ('this states the theory ..') or negative (get rid of things, reduce, ..).
  • Solution

    : Goal-directed approach: Setting target in advance that is testable, feasible, and that inspires and motivates.
    Difficulties and problems are quickly translated into underlying emotional needs, positive alternatives and needed changes.

  • Pitfall

    : Patchwork process: Little notion of efficiency.
    Hardly any insight in logical grounds of expectations.
    Method is often selected on basis of partial resemblance, standard-schemes, or trial-and-error. Is often poorly testable, diffuse in causal workings, open-ended, ..
  • Solution

    : Efficiency: Seeking the shortest pathway to the desired outcome.
    Search for an approach that is pleasant, constructive, limited and manageable.
    Usage of logical techniques for most reliable judgments and decisions.

  • Pitfall

    : Open ended plans: Process started is often hardly monitored for effectiveness.
    Eg. Means become goals, or missing the pointe, ..
  • Solution

    : Effectivity: Inserting 'building blocks' that are necessary and sufficient for the result aimed at.
    Anticipating side-effects.
    Providing for alternative ways.
    Regular testing whether the means are (still) suitable for the goal.
    Continuous optimization based on intermediate results: adjustment and fine-tuning of analysis and approach.



Concept of man


Problems/ pitfalls


Judgments are made about persons, their functioning and their development - but there is no precise, transparent concept of man.

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Model
Clear and coherent view on the human organism
In it's core this has quality of subjective experience - amidst material and nonmaterial factors.

Psychology of Subjective Experience (PSE) is designed to offer a coherent and insightful concept of man. Within this model the most important factors in human functioning have been mapped out with respect to their mutual interaction. Within this structure a central place is given to subjective consciousness, amidst all the objective components of the nerve system that have an immediately impact on well-being and functioning. This model is primairily based on neurophysiology, and further cognitive psychology, linguistics, logic, philosophies of West and East.

  • Pitfall

    : Extreme variation in theories, models and hypotheses. Many of these are incomplete, incoherent, moderately valid, and often mutually incompatible, contradictory or plainly undecidable.
  • Solution

    :

    UNIQUE

    : Integrated and unified model, with major psychological factors described not the least their interactions: 'Ten factor model' of human functioning.

  • Pitfall

    : No clear agreement with 'hard' neurophysiological data.
  • Solution

    : The model is precisely tailored on anatomy andworkings of the nervous system.

  • Pitfall

    : A vague and fuzzy picture of the structure of the world of immediate experience of people.
  • Solution

    : Dimensions and modalities of subjective experience are clearly mapped, as well as steps and functions in the psychological process.

  • Pitfall

    : Drives are primarily looked for in mechanical impulses from Darwinistic principles: survival instinct, selfishness and competition (the 'selfish genes').
  • Solution

    : Quality of subjective experience and inter-subjective experience are considered having motivational power in behavior and decision making.



Consciousness


Problems/ pitfalls


Involvement, advice and interventions are often dedicated to well-being, conscious experience and 'awareness' of people - but there is no place for a 'literal' understanding of consciousness.

Solutions +Extras :


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Foundation
A solid theory of subjective experience
A systematic exploration illuminating the many remarkable characterstics of consciousness, amongst which several unique features.

Within this theorie a proof is presented for the irrefutable and non-reducable existence of subjective experience.

Why is it important ?


An experience we have has little meaning if it remains entirely unconscious. In fact, many of our questions, needs and problems in life are concerned with the consciousness of ourselves or others: especially, how to get it in a desired state, e.g. a state that is comfortable, in touch with relevant issues and ready for actions at hand. We can therefore assume that insights in the characteristics and workings of consciousness are of great importance in almost all areas of human activity. This hardly seems a problem; after all, consciousness - taken in the 'literal' sense, that is, the everyday 'being conscious', or having subjective awareness, or taking conscious notice, of whatever we may experience subjectively - is the one and only thing we know by which we know all things we know that we know ..
However, in spite of its seemingly trivial character, the phenomenon of consciousness is still a profound mystery in many ways. It can not be directly observed in physical phenomena nor can it's presence be demonstrated through experimental procedures, or can it's existence be decisively derived by logical inference. It therefore really has no place in Western science up to this day, which is after all still essentially - and only - materialistic, physicalistic and functionalistic. Especially in psychology consciousness represents a troublesome concept. What remains as a logical consequence of this restriction is a concept of man that can not go beyond the levels of some sort of automaton, a computer within living matter, a 'biorobot' - in fact, a zombie. From this perspective, human beings, as well as other living creatures, cannot have any kind of intrinsic value whatsoever. They can only have market value based upon some instrumental utility, like serving as a means for production, commerce and consumption. This market value can solely be dependent of extrinsic variables like supply and demand (that are always higly accidental). This is exactly of course the way both humans and animals are considered and treaten in modern or postmodern industrialized 'free market' economy.

There obviously are some serious problems with that picture. It excludes many concepts and values that go beyond the purely physical or formal phenomena, and that we usually consider to be essential for a somewhat humane society: like having physical and emotional feelings and understanding that others have them, and many other interpersonal experiences, skills and abilities like involvement with others, and empathy. But also, consciousness is a necessary precondition of 'conscious choice', or a 'free will' and thus for reasonable levels of self-control, responsible behavior, accountability, and the ability we call 'conscience' (or some form of sincere inner morality for that matter). These faculties we may consider indispensible for living in a civil society.

Thus we may conclude that a realistic image of humans has to include a capacity for true subjective consciousness as a vital and crucial part of our being. First of all, because it concerns, as said before, our everyday waking state of consciousness by which we have any idea or awareness of anything, anywhere, in any case. Moreover, concsiousness embodies the miraculous power that is the necessary condition for the essentials in life, such as quality of experience, appraisal of what we observe, feel or know, and motivation for all our acts and efforts. Taken further, consciousness is the foundation of value, love and beauty - and the core of spiritual experience. It is therefore important to take a closer look at the grounds and whereabouts of this fascinating phenomenon. Then it appears that subjective consciousness is not that 'vague' as a phenomenon as it is sometimes considered.

  • Pitfall

    : Consciousness can only be understood materialistically: at most as a (neuro)physical phenomenon or an abstract pattern.
  • Solution

    : It is shown that consciousness has characteristics that are unique - like eg the so-called qualia - and so far are not to be found in nor can be explained by fysical phenomena or for that matter abstract patterns.

  • Pitfall

    : Man and animal are seen as 'biorobot', a completely mechanical device, a zombie without any awareness or freedom of choice.
  • Solution

    : 'Real' consciousness is given a central place amidst other psychological factors within the organism.

  • Pitfall

    : Nature-nurture dichotomy:
    The organism as a closed system, preprogrammed and only mechanically reprogrammable.
  • Solution

    : Empirically and logically grounded concept of conscious decision making, a certain latitude of free choice and thus self-determination and responsibility.

  • Pitfall

    : Life forms are not considered have any mental content or meaning, they are semantically ' void'.
    They have at most market value, being objects for consumption or commerce, exploitation or production - their value varying with supply and demand.
  • Solution

    : Subjective consciousness, experience and freedom of choice allow for true intrinsic value.


Domain

 

Logic


Information in combinations and implications


Laws of truth,
valid schemes of inference
How do you know what is true, probable, or plausible?


Analysis


Problems/ pitfalls


There is plenty ofreasoning, interpreting argueing, and analysing - but there is little understanding about real logical grounds of statements and conclusions.
The term 'logical' is frequently used - but there is rarely any notion of real logic and most basic principles of judgment.

Solutions +Extras :


In

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Method
Effective use of logic
For optimal approach of problems, goals and opportunities.

A method designed to make an effective use of logic: for systematic analysis of problems and building reality-proof solutions.
Particularly directed towards learning to reason and decide quickly and accurately with 'fuzzy' information, that is inherent to so-called 'open systems': like people, groups, companies, societies, cultures.
A crucial tool in policy development, decision making, planning, problem-solving, innovation and debate - in all possible areas.

Why is it important ?


The importance of logic is directly connected with that of information. As long as we live we make a use of information. For a large part this is because of it's immediate experiential value, for amusement and sensation, like stories and anecdotes, jokes and rumours, etc. .. At the same time, information can offer us guidelines for our choices and actions. Because of this, information has profound effects on the functioning, communication and interaction of people and cultures. For some information it may therefore be useful, or even of vital importance, that it is solid and reliable. The latter requires that data are thoroughly grounded on facts and accordant with relations in reality. In short, quality of information is intimately connected with it's degree of truth value. Logic offers the rules and guidelines to be able to decide about truth relations between information elements: the ordering relations that determine the truth values of distinct data.

Summary


As soon as we may discern some ordering of data, information is present, and where there is information, logic can be applied to it. In reverse, chaos and confusion - or, disinformation - may lead to problems that can be clarified with help of logic. There is, for instance, the information overload that we are faced with every day, through the media and internet, which the power of logic can help us to filter and to process.
At all times the logical laws are independent of the contents of the data, the subject, the domain or the 'kind' of reality. Logic clarifies the possibilities and restrictions of human judgement, in the most exact way we can think of. It determines the boundaries of any kind of science .. including itself! In fact, logic is the most exact of all sciences. Because of this, logical knowledge preceeds any kind of other knowledge. Moreover, the logical regularities compensate for the numeous ways in which the human mind may deceive itself with illusions and fallacies. Because of this, knowledge of logic is the start of understanding facts and their connections in any area.

  • Pitfall

    : Figures and formulas are often applied to poorly decidable problems, without a system that is suitable.
    (There is much quasi-exactness).
  • Solution

    : Selections from logic designed for fast and precise reasoning and decision making with 'fuzzy' information, which belongs to so-called 'open systems'.
    Thus most suitable for complex psychological, social and economical issues.

  • Pitfall

    : Theories and analysis contain all sorts of fallacies, errors of reasoning and faulty information.
    Logic is often applied in a crooked, biased and reversed way: 'pseudo-logic' and 'counter-logic'.
  • Solution

    : Systematic analysis of problems and development of positive solutions.
    Insights and techniques to test, prove or disprove arguments, pleas and theories.
    Essential to all policy making, decision making, planning, problem solving, design, innovation and not the least .. debate.



Information


Problems/ pitfalls


Continuously 'information' is collected, processed, exchanged and applied - but there is no clear concept of what 'information' is.

Solutions +Extras :


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Foundation
Crystal clear concept of 'information'

An analyse of the most prominent views on information.

Why is it important?


Information is meant to offer clarification, so it would be useful that the term "information" be at least clear. In this article a step-by-step investigation is done after the most important forms or kinds in which information can emerge and what their discriminating features are. It appears that different kinds of information have characteristics that are unique, by which they can be classified in several sharply marked out dimensions.

Summary (of the summary):


Among the most well-known concepts of information four maintypes can be discerned: information as physical structure, as abstract structure, as subjective (mental) content and as conscious (subjective, mental) content. With respect to these four basic concepts the question is examined whether they offer a necessary and useful contribution to information-processing and communication. The conclusion is that the concept of information indeed has a valuable, independent function, as long as we discriminate it from purely physical ordering, and take it as ordering of conscious experience. Within this structure, abstract patterns are to be classified as mental constructions. The subjective contents can have a certain degree of 'informational value': and thus, a degree of objectivy.

  • Pitfall

    : Little notion of the structure of information: referral relations, types of meaning, interpretation, information value, logical power, scope of application.
  • Solution

    :

    UNIQUE

    : Relations are shown between concepts of information, in light of epistemology, model theory, formal logic, and characteristics of subjective consciousness.

  • Pitfall

    : Pitfalls in information gathering: eg selective perception, 'wild' associating, over-interpretation and distortion of data.
  • Solution

    :

    UNIQUE

    : Relations are shown between information, decidability, validation and falsification, and formal logic.
    Razor sharp testing on quality of information.

  • Pitfall

    : Much fuzzy notions, elastic terms, flexible concepts. (Weak concept validity).
  • Solution

    : Clear concepts sharply delineated through logical and meaning analysis.

  • Pitfall

    : Pseudo-formalization: Codes and measurement systems are often weakly based, misplaced, ill-defined, distorted or over-complex.
  • Solution

    : Accurate formalization, aimed at improving decidability, reliability and efficiency.



Measurement and Testing


Problems/ pitfalls


Measurement and testing is often content-bound: dependent of specific domain, topic, and application.

Solutions +Extras :


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Instrument
Thorough Information gathering
Information gathering performed in a structure oriented way, 'content free'.
In principle to be applied to any domain.

'List-Sys' is an expert-system that supports judgement and decision-making in various areas of knowledge and information. Among others, it offers an objective instrument for psychological analysis and consultancy.

Why is it important ?


Analysis and assessment concerning problems and objectives of people are often hampered by a high degree of complexity, an immense amount of combinatory possibilities and interactions of very divers factors. It may be quite hard to avoid an approach that would be one-sided, colored, biased or partial ('tunnel vision', 'blind spots', and the like).
The expert-system 'List-Sys' © has been designed to make analysis of data from tests and observations more complete, faster and more reliable.
The program produces a variety of reports, containing a.o. personality profile, strengths-weaknesses analysis, prognosis, competencies for tasks and jobs, and presents advies voor careers, education, reintegration, training or therapy. The system is now available in a Dutch and an English version. It is applicable on any domain of knowledge and information, and so far has been equipped with a knowledge base suited for psychological purposes.

  • Pitfall

    : Use of standardized tests; these only have predictive power for sample averages.
  • Solution

    : Analysis is aimed at specific cases.
    Collecting information from multiple sources: interview data, tests, expert opinions, behavioral observations, and self-assessment, through a wide range of check-lists.

  • Pitfall

    : Instruments are tested on relatively few, very general traits or properties, based on rather flexible and pliable concepts.
  • Solution

    : Scoring on a broad spectrum of specific characteristics and dimensions.

  • Pitfall

    : The general test results are then, using personal impressions and experiences, related to the unique status of the client or situation.
  • Solution

    : Knowledge base and applied inference (arguments) are automatically and systematically checked for logical criteria:
    Coherentie (connections between propositions);
    Consistency (non-contradiction);
    Efficiency (finding the shortest route, avoiding redundancies).

  • Pitfall

    : 'Black box' path of inference.
    Often, implicit chain of reasoning (or linked proof), with few intermediate tests: jumping to conclusions, 'giant-leap' steps.
    Produces uncontrolled multiplication of exceptional errors.
  • Solution

    : Explicit path of inference.
    Sophisticated network of subtle logical intermediating steps.
    Reproducible and verifiable.
    Systematical, step-by-step fine-tuning and optimizing.
    Fast and accurate result.

  • Pitfall

    : Outcomes often keep much options undecided.
    Are vaguely or weakly related to crucial choice points in real-life settings.
  • Solution

    : Outcomes provide tools focussed on the specific case at hand: status picture, prognosis, goals for change, changeability, needed actions, timing, required resources, etc..
    Results are organized into clear overview ofstrengths-weaknesses. Direct insights in priorities and phases.



Reasoning


Problems/ pitfalls


Judgments are often formed on areas and issues of enormous complexity - but there is little account of the inevitable combinatory explosion of possibilities, especially of logical relations.

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Knowledge
Precise method of analyzing complex problems.
Relations clarified between information, complexity, combinatory explosion, logical structure, reduction and selection.

Special attention is thereby payed to benefits, reach and limitations of formalisation and systems of logic for practical purposes.
  • Pitfall

    : Unlimited divergence of search paths and trails of reasoning.
    Selection of valid relations is often haphazard or biased.
  • Solution

    : Logical techniques for fast and smart escape from combinatory explosion.
    Applying logical laws: clear, efficient, accurate.
    Selection and summary of most crucial links through logical reduction.



Domain-knowledge


Problems/ pitfalls


Many judgments are formed about social and psychological phenomena with components across various domains with incomparable information but there is little notion of differences between domains of reality and types of information.

Solutions +Extras :


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Knowledge
Insights into the nature of domains.
Clarity about precise scope of information at different logical levels.

An overview of logical criteria of different (meta-)levels that are crucial for solid judgement on statements, arguments and systems of reasoning - among which logical systems themselves. We see how logic, throught these, marks out her own capabilities, and sets her own boundaries. This results in crystal-clear insights in the range of information on various logical levels.

  • Pitfall

    : Hardly any distinction between logical criteria: truth, satisfiability, consistency, validity, completeness, ..
  • Solution

    : Application of logical criteria on various meta-levels for assessing data collections, models and information systems.
    Deep insights in proof and falsification - even about unlimited or infinite domains.


Domain

 

Causality


Information in processes of cause-effect


Laws of cause-effect,
causal hypothesis/model
What is causing a phenomenon - and what are its consequences?


Explaining, predicting


Problems/ pitfalls


All the time, presumptions and expectations, explanations and predictions are expressed, causes are identified and consequences suggested - but there is little understanding of true cause-effect analysis.

Solutions +Extras :


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Method
Clear system for causal analysis.
Instructions and criteria are scientifically tested and refined.

This method offers clear insights in the structure of causal relations. Based on these, guidelines are offered to detect causal factors, to determine causal mechanisms and to predict effects.

Why is it important ?


Such a methode is of crucial importance everytime we want to apply cause-effect inference: to understand events in the world, or to realise results. This is especially relevant in practical settings that are complex, dynamical or chaotic, and were sample research is not an option because it is too cumbersome and time-consuming, or not provides the information needed.

Summary


'Beneath' methods and techniques of explanatory statistics appears to imply a model for causal determination/attribution. This model can be translated into logical rules, and further be expanded and refined with help of logical principles so that it becomes suitable for applications in practical situations, were sample research or complex statistical data-analysis and testing are not feasible. Furthermore, this logical model for causal analysis offers the handles and tools needed for translating statistical data to relations of meaning, verbal descriptions, theory building and practical applications - and vice versa.

  • Pitfall

    : Few or none insights in logical structure of causal mechanism: no distinction of sufficient and necessary, disjunct and conjunct, unique and inherent, intermediate and common or other factors.
  • Solution

    :

    UNIQUE

    : Relations have been established between types of derivation rules - especially chronology, logical implication, causal relation.

  • Pitfall

    : Thoughtless use of stereotypical schemes and sample-dependent outcomes in specific cases.
  • Solution

    :

    UNIQUE

    : Relations have been established between statistics, logic and causality.

  • Pitfall

    : Almost no guidelines to accurately establish causal relations, or apply them (by explaning, predicting) in practical settings.
  • Solution

    : Clear guidelines for accurate causal determination/attribution.

  • Pitfall

    : All types of errors in causal determination/attribution: eg overdetermination, neglect of essential causal requirements, of possible covariates, contra-indications and random noise, etc..
  • Solution

    : Recognize and use of causal relations based on unique and/or independent contributions.

  • Pitfall

    : No tools for causal analysis in 'N=1' situations (which in daily life is often most relevant!).
  • Solution

    : Precise logical and statical connections between population, sample, and 'N=1' application.

See pages Causal Analysis.

Domain

 

Communication and Language


Information in sign and meaning


Sending and receiving of information
What does language 'tell'? What does communication 'do'?


Communication and Language


Problems/ pitfalls


Large amounts of data are collected, processed, recorded and communicated in some sort of language - but there is little insight into the workings of language in psychological and social processes.

Solutions +Extras :


In

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Method
Method for systematic, content-free language analysis.

A system consisting of knowledge, guidelines and check-lists designed for the most scrutinous text- and argument-analysis. To recognize and restore 'information-deficits'. Checking credibility and reliability, realism and validity of arguments. The detection of fallacies and the exposure of hidden agendas. Deriving high-quality information from any language expression. Interview techniques and derivation rules for retrieving psychological structure-information, hidden under various language structures, like cognitions, association patterns, reasoning schemes and mental 'strategies'.

  • Pitfall

    : No clear distinction between content and structure of information: meaning and coding (in verbal expressions).
    Little notion of abstraction levels.
    No distinction of language levels: sentence structure (syntax), meaning (semantics), truth relations (logic).
  • Solution

    : Sharp distinction between content and structure of information (ie. language expressions).
    Clear distinction of abstraction levels.
    Application of the Cognitive Differential: Levels of abstraction and decidability in judgments and language use.

  • Pitfall

    : Little attention to vague definitions of terms, varying connotations, container concepts, etc..
    Selective interpretation.
  • Solution

    : Analysis is performed based on characteristics of structure of linguistic, logical and psychological nature.
    Reliability: Formalization of the interpretation process (through linguistic characteristics of structure) and of the process of judgment (through logical, causal and psychological characteristics of structure).
    Validity: Translation of aspects of language - on the syntactic and semantic level - to logical structure. Strenghtening of decidability of meaning, truth and validity.

  • Pitfall

    : Little attention to effects of language on information flows, social and psychological processes.
  • Solution

    : Insights into effects of language forms on psychological processes (experiences, choices, problems, solutions).
    Considering semantic and psychological effects of 'verbalization' of information.